Monthly Archives: April 2016

Common Virus, RSV Causes Life Threatening Conditions in Kids

Categorized | Diseases & Conditions

Common Virus, RSV Causes Life Threatening Conditions in Kids


What’s New: A common virus, RSV (Respiratory Syncytical Virus) that infects the breathing passage ways and lungs causes minor cold in adults but in young children and those who have weak immune system; it causes life threatening conditions.

Important detail: RSV (Respiratory Syncytical Virus) is highly contagious virus that peaks in winter and spreads rapidly from one child to another, said Rahul Bhatia, MD, physician at LUHS and assistant professor of pediatrics at Stritch School of Medicine- LUC. “Younger children are more likely to get infected with this virus.”

RSV spreads by touching contaminated and unhygienic surfaces and people. Symptoms reach at its peak into illness within 5 to 7 days and continue to cause serious problems for about 10 to 15 days. People with RSV virus remain contagious for 3 to 8 days but when it comes to people with weaken immune system, they are generally contagious for more than 4 weeks.

According to CDC (Centers for Disease Control), RSV is the main the offender of inflammation of the small airways of the lungs and bronchiolitis in newborns under the age of 1 year. Many kids expose to this virus by the age of 2 years.

No vaccine has been discovered so far against RSV. It cannot be stopped from spreading.The only way to protect your children from this dangerous virus is old fashioned hand washing.

RSV symptoms differ with age and can be akin to cold. Bhatia advises calling your physician if a kid has the following symptoms- decreased appetite, nasal flaring, decreased urine output and difficulty with breathing. Bhatia suggests making a move to the emergency room right off if a kid is dusky color, quits breathing as well as having difficulty with breathing.

“There are lots of viruses that lead to respiratory infections but the best way to differentiate between RSV and others is to get a test done”, Bhatia said.

Conclusion: RSV is very contagious virus that causes serious illness in children as compared to adults. It produces the symptoms quite similar to common cold. No vaccine is available up to now to control this virus. The best ways to protect your kid from this virus is old fashioned hand washing or keeping them away from unhygienic people and surfaces.

Trauma Stress Common Among Various Cancer Survivors

Categorized | Mental Health

Trauma Stress Common Among Various Cancer Survivors


A U.S. study found that lifelong psychological scars akin can be left by a cancer diagnosis to those influenced by wars.

Sophia Smith at the Duke Center Institute, who led the study, said, of the 10 survivors diagnosed with cancer reported that they were still experiencing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms.

Those symptoms include emotional numbness towards family and friends, disturbing thoughts about the disease and its cure, or being more nervous.

1 in 10 survivors said they no longer think about their cancer and 1 in 20 said they completely avoided activities or situation that reminded them of cancer, a circumstance that could probably turn into a health problem.

For the study, published in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, 566 individuals with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma were surveyed by the Smith’s team for symptoms of PTSD once before, predicting that 1 in 12 had developed PTSD. A trio of symptoms was involved for the diagnosis, which included flashbacks, arousal and avoidance.

The latest survey not only showed that the participants had one or more symptoms of PTSD, but also their persistence.

On the whole, 50% of the participants had no symptoms of PTSD over 13 years post diagnosis. The PTSD symptoms waned in 12%, however, had persisted or aggravated in 37%.

The researchers also suggested that depression is more common than PTSD among cancer survivors.

The recent survey shows that people with low-income are more susceptible to the cancer’s psychological impact on living.

Smith concluded: “The study primly applies to those patients with less resources or who are poor and the doctors have to recognize distress more efficiently in such patients.”

She added, “Each time patients come in doctors should not only ask them about their pain experience but also ask them about their stress experience.”

Different Treatments For Ectopic Pregnancy Affects Fertility Similarly

Categorized | Kids & Parenting

Different Treatments For Ectopic Pregnancy Affects Fertility Similarly

140301What’s New: According to a new study, fertility rates remain almost same after women with ectopic pregnancy received different treatments for the condition.

Important Detail: Growth of fertilized egg outside the uterus is the condition that is known as ectopic pregnancy. In such cases, growth of fertilized egg takes place generally in the fallopian tubes increasing the miscarriage risk.

Researchers looked at the feasibility of the three methods: radical surgery; conservative surgery; and methotrexate injection.

The study was divided into parts: one based on the comparison between conservative and radical surgery and another based on comparison between conservative surgery and drug treatment.

After two years of treatment, fertility rates were found to be 64% among radical surgery group, 70% among conservative surgery group and 67% among methotrexate group.

Conclusion: Study author Dr. Perrine Capmas from the University Paris Sud said the three methods were compared for the first time in this randomized trial and were found to have similar effect on fertility rates.

Fresh Silicon-gel Breast Implant Received FDA Approval

Categorized | Drugs & Treatment

Fresh Silicon-gel Breast Implant Received FDA Approval


What’s New: Women aged 22 or above can now receive silicon-gel based implants for breast reconstruction and enhancement

Important detail: Sientra based in Santa Barbara, California became the third company to market silicon-gel based breast implants after getting approval from FDA. The organization is planning to offer implants in various sizes and shapes as only round shapes are available currently.

The silicon-gel based products were previously banned by FDA with a fear that the products may cause lupus, cancer and other health conditions. The most recent data from other companies selling such products revealed that the products are vulnerable to get broken and need to be swapped often

Conclusion: Regulators from FDA concluded that if women are offered better understanding about the complications related to the device then the silicon-gel based implants will be highly successful.

Accutane Drug Review – Accutane Side Effects and Dosage

Categorized | Nodular Acne

Accutane Drug Review – Accutane Side Effects and Dosage

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Drug trade name- Accutane, Claravis, Amnesteem, Sotret

Generic name- Isotretinoin

Group- Miscellaneous Antineoplastics or Miscellaneous Uncategorized Agents

Introduction and Quick Information about Accutane:

Accutane is a prescribed medication used for the treatment of severe nodular acne. It is generally taken when some other acne antibiotics or medicines are not able to provide relief from the acne symptoms. Accutane is of the common types of vitamin A. This medication has the capability to minimize the quantity of oil released by the oil glands (sebaceous glands) inside the skin, and also helps the skin to renew itself rapidly.

Accutane can also correct the abnormal keratinization (which results in the buildup of cells inside the hair follicles), a problem which can contribute to the formation of acne. This medication can prove to be very effective, with long-lasting effects after a single fifteen or twenty week course.

Is Accutane Approved by FDA?

Yes, FDA (Food and Drug Adminstration) had given its approval to Accutane for the long-term treatment of severe nodular acne.

Usage and Benefits of Accutane:

Accutane® (isotretinoin) is one of the effectual prescription acne medications available in the market. This medication is reserved for those individuals with severe nodular acne which has not responded well to certain other kinds of treatments. Acne has many types and the most common forms are:

  • Blackheads
  • Whiteheads
  • Pustules
  • Papules
  • Cysts
  • Nodules

Accutane is licensed to treat the last form i.e. the nodular acne, which is one of the most severe kinds. Nodules are painful, large and solid lesions that are lodged deep inside your skin. Your dermatologist may recommend you the use of Accutane if other acne treatments do not work.

Note- this medication can lead to birth defects. So it is important that you should not be pregnant or plan to get pregnant while taking Accutane.

Accutane is approved to be used in kids who are at least 12 years old, although it  is thought that it may lead to bone thinning (which can further result in osteoporosis) when taken by children or teens. Consult your child’s health specialist about the risks and advantages of taking Accutane in children.

At times, the doctors may prescribe Accutane to treat some other conditions except acne. This is termed as “off-label” use. Accutane can be sometimes used off-label as chemotherapy for the treatment of certain kinds of cancers as well.

Accutane Side Effects:

A few bothersome side effects associated with Accutane include water retention, nausea, and fatigue. Although these sorts of adverse effects are not generally dangerous and quite simple to treat also, the medicine can lead to potentially serious conditions. Notify your medical advisor immediately in case you observe any serious Accutane side effects,

  • Depressed Mood
  • crying spells
  • sleep problems
  • trouble concentrating
  • agitation or aggression
  • hallucinations
  • thoughts of hurting yourself or suicide
  • changes in behavior
  • sudden weakness or numbness
  • severe and sudden pain or headache behind the eyes
  • blurred vision
  • hearing problems
  • ringing in the ears
  • seizure (convulsions)
  • hearing loss
  • vomiting and nausea
  • loss of appetite
  • severe pain in your upper stomach
  • fast heart rate
  • clay-colored stools
  • dark urine
  • jaundice
  • severe diarrhea
  • rectal bleeding
  • black, tarry, or bloody stools
  • fever
  • chills
  • purple spots under the skin
  • easy bleeding or bruising
  • body aches
  • flu symptoms
  • joint stiffness
  • feeling drowsy, dizzy, or nervous
  • severe peeling, blistering, and red skin rash
  • back pain
  • bone fracture or pain
  • rash, or itching
  • joint pain
  • dryness of mouth, lips, skin, or nose
  • changes in the toenails or fingernails
  • peeling or cracking skin

General Recommended Dosages of Accutane:

Always bear one point in your mind that to get positive effects from your treatment, you have to follow the medication on prescribed time and in prescribed amounts. If we talk about Accutane, take this medication in the exact amount recommended by your general practitioner.  Never take it in smaller or larger amounts than recommended.

Every prescription of Accutane should be filled within seven days of the date your doctor prescribed it for you. You will get merely a thirty-day supply of Accutane at one time.

You need to take Accutane with one complete glass of water in order to prevent capsule from melting in your food pipe (esophagus), resulting in irritation.

Do not suck on or chew the capsule; just swallow it quickly. Take this medication with milk or food. Take this drug for the proper and complete length of time suggested by your physician. Your acne might appear to be worse initially, but then should start improving.

To make sure this drug is not causing any damaging effects to your body; your doctor will ask you for proper blood tests.

Never share Accutane with someone else, even if he/she has the same symptoms which you have. Store Accutane away from heat, moisture, and light and keep it at room temperature.

In case I Miss my Dose?

In case you forget to take the required drug on the prescribed time, then just skip the previously missed dosage and take the medication at your next scheduled time. Also, never try to take any extra drug in order to compensate for the missed Accutane dose.

In case I Take Overdose?

Symptoms of Accutane overdose may include dizziness, headache, warmth, vomiting, stomach pain, swelling of the lips, tingling under the skin, and loss of coordination or balance. Look for the emergency medical assistance if you think you have taken the medicine in extra amounts or for more than recommended.

Drug Interactions of Accutane:

When some specific medicines are taken along with Accutane, interactions can be occurred and can also lead to potentially serious side effects. For instance, some drug interactions may increase your risk of osteoporosis or cause a certain kind of high blood pressure in head. Some medications which can negatively interact with Accutane include:

  • seizure medicines like phenytoin (Dilantin)
  • steroids (prednisone, etc)
  • Phenytoin (Dilantin, Phenytek)
  • tetracycline antibiotics like demeclocycline (Declomycin), minocycline (Minocin), doxycycline (Vibramycin, Doryx), or tetracycline (Tetracap, Sumycin, Brodspec)
  • Progestin-only “mini pill” birth control medications like Errin, Ortho Micronor,  or Jolivette
  • Vitamin A
  • St. John’s wort

This list is not a complete one and some other medications may interact with Accutane. Inform your general practitioner about all drugs you take, including the over-the-counter, prescription, herbal, and vitamin products.


Life style and Food Habits you must Follow when on Accutane:

Do not use this drug in case you are allergic towards parabens or isotretinoin or if you are expecting or planning to get pregnant.

To get the positive benefits from Accutane, inform your physician if you have any of the below-mentioned conditions:

  • family or personal history of mental illness or depression
  • heart disease
  • high triglycerides or cholesterol
  • intestinal disorder like inflammatory ulcerative colitis, bowel disease, or Crohn’s disease
  • osteoporosis
  • asthma
  • diabetes
  • liver disease
  • eating disorder (anorexia nervosa)

Never take vitamin supplements which include vitamin A while using Accutane.

Also, don’t donate blood while using Accutane. Donating blood to a pregnant woman can cause birth defects in her baby.

Don’t use the wax hair removers or have laser skin treatments or dermabrasion while taking Accutane, or else, scarring may result.

Avoid too much exposure to artificial UV rays (tanning beds or sunlamps) or sunlight. Accutane may make your skin very sensitive to sunlight, which further result in sunburn. Accutane may also impair your vision, particularly at night. So you need to be more careful while you are driving.

How Safe is Accutane for Pregnant Women or Nursing mothers?

Accutane can lead to life-threatening, severe birth defects if the women take this drug during pregnancy. Even single Accutane dosage can result in major birth defects of the baby’s eyes, ears, face, skull, brain, and heart. Thus, never take Accutane if you are pregnant. Even females who have had their tubes tied have to stop the use of birth control or contraceptives while using Accutane.

Your pregnancy test must be negative 30 days prior to starting using Accutane. This sort of test is also required whenever it’s the time to refill your prescription, immediately you take the last Accutane dose, and 30 days later again.

You must be agreed in writing to follow 2 specific kinds of birth control starting 30 days before you begin to take Accutane and ending 30 days after you quit using it. Both a secondary and a primary form of birth control have to be taken together.

It is not known whether this drug may pass to the breast milk and can do harm to the nursed baby or not. Thus, tell your doctor in advance if you breast-feed.

Complications and Conditions Possible due to Prolonged use of Accutane:

Though this medication is meant for the long-term use, it may or may not cause habit-forming ability. Thus, if you want to discontinue this drug, for any reason, just check with your doctor. If you have been using Accutane since long, then quitting its use may cause some withdrawal symptoms. So ask your medical advisor when and how you have to stop its use.

Availability of the Accutane:

Accutane is available only under one of the special programs known as IPLEDGE. You have to be registered in that program and sign documents which state that you have understood the dangers of this drug and you agree to make the use birth of control as needed by the program. It can prove to be dangerous to try and buy Accutane from the Internet or from vendors outside of U.S. Just buy it from the authorized or FDA-approved medicine stores.

Cognex Drug Review – Cognex Side Effects and Dosage

Cognex Drug Review – Cognex Side Effects and Dosage

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Drug trade name- Cognex

Generic name- Tacrine

Group- Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors


Introduction and Quick Information about Cognex:

Cognex (Tacrine) is one of the effective medications used for the treatment of mild to moderate dementia caused due to Alzheimer’s disease. This medication is also classified as an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, which works by avoiding a specific enzyme (called acetylcholinesterase) from splitting down acetylcholine inside the brain. Acetylcholine is actually a sort of chemical which supports many brain functions, such as attention, memory, language, and reason.

Problems associated with insufficient acetylcholine within the brain may be accountable for some of the Alzheimer’s disease symptoms. Remember that individuals suffering from dementia generally have low levels of chemical, which is quite significant for the processes of thinking, memory, as well as reasoning.

Is Cognex Approved by FDA?

On 9th September, 1993, the U.S FDA (Food and Drug Administration) had given its approval to Cognex to treat dementia caused due to Alzheimer’s disease.

Usage and Benefits of Cognex:

Cognex (tacrine hydrochloride) is one of the prescribed medications licensed to treat mild to moderate Alzheimer’s disease. It is included in the class of drugs called acetylcholinesterase inhibitors.

Alzheimer’s disease is one of the kinds of dementia, which can affect a person’s memory, thought process, as well as his/her language. Well, there is not a specific cure for the Alzheimer’s disease, and the triggering factors which cause this condition, are not well understood. Initial signs of Alzheimer’s disease are generally confused with the usual changes associated with growing age. In due course, Alzheimer’s disease ruins a person’s ability to process information, think, and to function also.

Some of the common Alzheimer’s disease symptoms may include:

  • Worsening of language skills
  • Confusion
  • Poor judgment
  • Memory loss
  • Restlessness
  • Mood swings

The treatment for Alzheimer’s varies according to the different phases of Alzheimer’s. Medications to treat this condition are usually central considered very important. Cognex is approved to treat of mild to moderate Alzheimer’s disease. Don’t forget that it is neither a complete cure for Alzheimer’s, nor does it change the course of this disorder or prevent it from occurring. It can just assist you in improving memory, attention, language, reason, and the potential to carry out simple day-to-day tasks.

At times, your medical advisor may suggest you using Cognex to treat something other than Alzheimer’s disorder.

Some Off-label uses of Cognex may include the treatment of the following conditions-

  • Tourette syndrome
  • Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

However, before following any of the aforementioned Cognex off-label use, just consult your doctor properly first.

Cognex Side Effects:

High liver enzymes, nausea, and diarrhea are some of the most common adverse effects associated with Cognex. Side effects which are rare but probable (take place in less than 1 % of individuals) include migraines, weight gain, as well as acne. While most of the Cognex side effects are negligible, some are extremely serious and thus, must be reported to a general practitioner at once, including

  • Hallucinations
  • Confusion
  • seizure (convulsions)
  • sudden or extreme changes in behavior
  • nausea
  • burning or pain while urinating
  • stomach pain
  • loss of appetite
  • low fever
  • dark urine
  • jaundice
  • clay-colored stools
  • diarrhea
  • mild nausea
  • vomiting
  • urinating more than usual
  • upset stomach
  • weight loss
  • agitation
  • depressed mood
  • skin rash
  • increased sweating
  • chills or fever
  • drowsiness
  • runny nose
  • cough
  • dizziness
  • lack of coordination
  • tired feeling
  • muscle or joint pain
  • weakness

Call your doctor immediately if you observe any of the aforementioned side effects.


General Recommended Dosages of Cognex:

If you really want your treatment with Cognex to give you positive benefits all the time, just take this medication in the exact quantity prescribed by your physician. Never try to take it in larger or smaller amounts, or for more than recommended periods.

You need to use this dug with one complete glass of water. Cognex can do wonders or benefit more if taken between the meals on an unfilled stomach. However, you can also take it along with your meals if this drug upsets your stomach.

It is quite essential to use Cognex on regular basis to get the most of the benefits.

Your general practitioner may occasionally change your Cognex dosing schedule to ensure if you are getting the best results from this drug.

When you initially start using Cognex, you might experience some minor side effects like vomiting, nausea, or diarrhea. These adverse effects may also take place when your dose is changed, or if you begin to take Tacrine again after long.

To see this medicine has not any harmful effects, your doctor may ask you to come for proper blood tests or checkups.  So pay regular visits to his clinic.

Store this medication at room temperature and away from heat and moisture.

In case I Miss my Dose?


People usually get frightened whenever they miss having their medication on the required time. However, there is no need to freak out, as you can take the Cognex missed dose whenever you remember at the same day. But if the time has appeared to take the next scheduled dose, then just skip the previously skipped one. Also, don’t take the extra Cognex dosage to compensate for the missed dosage.

In case I Take Overdose?


Overdose of Cognex may include severe vomiting or nausea, sweating, drooling, and feeling light-headed, slow heart rate, muscle weakness, fainting, coma, seizure (convulsions), or respiratory failure.

Call your doctor immediately if you believe you have taken this medication in excess or extra amounts.

Drug Interactions of Cognex:

If anticholinergic drugs, cholinergic medications, or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medicines are used along with Cognex, drug interactions can be occurred. These sorts of negative interactions may potentially minimize the efficacy of the medication or boost up the chances of having side effects. In order to cut down your chance of facing Cognex interactions, you should tell your medical advisor about all sorts of medicines you take. Some of the possible drugs which can interact with Cognex include:

  • Atropine (Atreza, Sal-Tropine, and others);
  • dicyclomine (Bentyl)
  • cimetidine (Tagamet)
  • fluvoxamine (Luvox)
  • donepezil (Aricept)
  • glycopyrrolate (Robinul)
  • galantamine (Razadyne)
  • mepenzolate (Cantil)
  • hyoscyamine (Levbid, Anaspaz, Nulev, Levsin, etc)
  • propantheline (Pro-Banthine)
  • methscopolamine (Pamine)
  • rivastigmine (Exelon)
  • scopolamine (Scopace, Maldemar, Transderm-Scop)
  • theophylline (Elixophyllin, Theo-Dur, Theolair, Uniphyl, Slo-Bid)

There can be some other drugs which may interact with tacrine. Thus, you should inform your doctor about all the over-the-counter and prescription medications you use, including minerals, vitamins, herbal products.

Life style and Food Habits you must Follow when on Cognex:

Do not use this drug in case you find yourselves allergic towards Cognex, or if you have ever had any liver problem or jaundice while using Cognex.

Before using tacrine, inform your physician if the following conditions run in you:

  • liver disease
  • a history of stomach ulcers
  • heart disease
  • urination problems or enlarged prostate
  • heart rhythm disorder like “sick sinus syndrome”
  • epilepsy or any other seizure disorder
  • asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

Cognex can lead to side effects which may impair your reactions or thinking. So be attentive while you are driving.

How Safe is Cognex for Pregnant Women or Nursing mothers?

This medication can prove to be harmful to the health of an unborn baby if taken by pregnant women during pregnancy. Therefore, notify your general practitioner if you are expectant or plan to get pregnant during the treatment with Cognex. It is not yet known whether Cognex can pass in to the breast milk and harm a nursed baby or not. Thus, don’t use this drug without telling your physician if you breast-feed.

Complications and Conditions Possible due to Prolonged use of Cognex:

It is usually believed that the intake of a specific drug for a long period of time can make the users addicted. Well, it is not known whether Cognexcan do the same or not, but yes, it can make you resistant and also stop showing the same effects If you use it for years. Thus, it is recommendable not to quit using this medication without first consulting your healthcare professional. In case you stop using Tacrine suddenly, your condition may become worse.

Availability of the Cognex:

You can simply get Cognexfrom any government-approved drug shop after showing your prescription. You can come upon some online websites which are certified and also offer people the required drug together with some other useful discounts.

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Age Plays No Role in Selecting Contender for Stem Cell Transplantation

Categorized | Anti Aging

Age Plays No Role in Selecting Contender for Stem Cell Transplantation

A new study has concluded that selecting an older blood cancer patient as a contender for stem cell transplantation does not depend solely on age.

The study summarized the results from a number of clinical trials of older patients who underwent mini allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

The study findings are published in Nov. 2 edition of The Journal of the American Medical Association.

Paper’s co-author, Mohamed Sorror said, “Allogeneic transplant is no longer obstructed by age.”

The research team found that rates of disease-progression-free and overall survival over five-years among those who had mini-transplant were 32% and 35% respectively.   On dividing the patients in 3 age categories — 60 to 64, 65 to 69 and 70 to 75, researchers found similar survival rates in them, which suggested that tolerance of the mini-transplant had minimum dependence on age. They found that comorbidities and a higher cancer aggressiveness degree were the 2 risk factors that had impact on survival among older patients.

The authors wrote, “These findings are heartening with regard to relapse, given that the non-transplantation treatments brought poor outcomes, especially for patients with progressive lymphoma, fludarabine-refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia or acute myeloid leukemia.”

The study involved 372 older patients enrolled in potential clinical trials at 18 collaborating cancer centers from Europe and U.S. between 1998 and 2008. The study patients received treatment for their myelogenous leukemia, myelodysplastic syndromes, multiple myeloma and lymphoma.

The researchers also examined rates of graft-vs.-host disease, hospitalization, relapse, and treatment toxicity to internal organs.


Previously the Hematopoietic Cell Transplant-specific Comorbidity Index (HCT-CI) was developed by Sorror and his team by investigating the links between mortality and single comorbidities after a stem cell transplant.

“Using HCT-CI allowed us to capture the significant role played by comorbidities in defining older patients’ survival,” he said.

Sorror said. “We have little knowledge about why the recommendation rate of elder patients to transplant is low or how outcomes of mini-transplant are compared to those of conventional treatments. We are planning to start a multicenter study designed to track patients from diagnosis time to find answers to both questions.”

How Often Should You Go For Bone Density Test

Categorized | Health & Fitness

How Often Should You Go For Bone Density Test

A new research suggests that elderly women with thin bones should go for bone density screening every year and those with thicker bones can wait for about 17 years to get screened for bone mineral density.

The lead author of the study Dr. Margaret Gourlay from the University of North Carolina and her team assessed results from 4.957 women for 15 years. They made use of a so-called T score derived from measurement of hip bone density using X-rays and found that the ideal time for bone density test depends on a starting point of women. Lower score indicated weaker bones.

At the start of the study, women aged over 67 had a normal T score of -1.00 or more and after 16.8 years, 10% of them developed osteoporosis with a score of -2.50.

They also assessed women with osteopenia and found that it took less time for 10% of them to develop osteoporosis.

The interval for osteoporosis development was 1.1 years among those who scored -2.00 to -2.49, 4.7 years among those who scored -1.50 to -1.99 and 17.3 years among those who scored -1.01 to -1.49.

Researchers were surprised with the separation between low and high risk group, they found unexpectedly.

Though, the time intervals were varying for all women aged 67 or above.

The researchers reported the research in the New England Journal of Medicine.

Gourlay warned that these time intervals may vary among women below 67 years of age.

Gourlay is doubtful about the whether the guidelines will be cost-effective or not. “The research only suggests the way of better use of the test, but we are still concerned about the ordering of the test.”